history of spanish cuisine
Wineries are common in the islands. History of Japanese Cuisine The biggest influence on Japanese cuisine by far has been the introduction of rice into Japanese culture. Olives, olive oil, and wine tie it closely to Greek and Roman (Italian) culture. Wheat and grains are a dominant product and ingredient. History of the Filipino Cuisine More than 300 years ago, long before Spanish conquistadores staggered down their ships to kiss the shores of the islands, Filipinos were rowing out to sea in their little bancas, wading knee-deep in rice paddies, planting in their backyards and hunting in the woods. Salted products are common and include: chorizo de Pamplona, stuffing and sausage. Desserts are abundant; among them are paparajotes Orchard, stuffed pastries, and various other pastries. The txakoli or chacolí (a white wine characterised by its high acidity and a lesser-than-average alcohol content) is a staple drink from the Basque Country, produced in Álava and Biscay.. Spanish cuisine consists of a variety of dishes, which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. Fish and seafood play also an important role in Asturian cuisine. Desserts dishes include Catalan cream, carquinyolis, panellets, tortell, and neules. Discours et pratiques alimentaires en Méditerranée (vol. They are used in bread, soups, gazpacho manchego, crumbs, porridge, etc.  Hallmark herbs include parsley, oregano, rosemary and thyme. Endless cultures, as they passed through or settled in Spain, have influenced the history of Spanish food. Around 2000 B.C., China and the … In the last years, the Spanish government is starting to take action to shorten the lunch break, in order to end the working day earlier. Eating went from being a daily necessity, to be an emotion of palates, since the Romans performed feasts and banquets in honor of the food.  Butter was only locally produced in places such as Galicia, Asturias or Soria (or it was imported: the so-called "Flanders' butter", preserved in potassium nitrate). The history of Mexican food is a long and diverse one. But A.C. early second century, the Romans came into Asia Minor and discovered the refinement of the Greek courts. Modern Spanish cuisine "The most common misconsception about Spanish food is that it is spicy hot. Due to the large time span between lunch and dinner, an afternoon snack, la merienda, equivalent to afternoon tea, may take place at about 6pm. The aboriginal people, Guanches, based their diet on gofio (a type of flour made of different toasted grains), shellfish, and goat and pork products. Popular deserts include ensaïmada, tambor d'ametlla, and suspiros de Manacor. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep maritime roots. It is believed that authentic Mexican food might have been derived from the Mayan Indians. Another traditional breakfast food you’ll often see in Spanish bars are the so-called churros, fried dough with sugar. Orujo is the Cantabrian pomace brandy. Also of note are Asturian stew (made with white beans, cabbage, potatoes and a variety of sausages and bacon) and vigil stew.  There are many accounts of the "drinking chats" of Abd al-Rahman II, Abd al-Rahman III and Almanzor.  This can be considered as an important step to stray away from the French cooking paradigm, hegemonic in the 19th century in Europe. The lamb and beef have, at present, designations of origin. There are several factors that make Spanish cuisine so unique. Spanish Regional Cuisine - A Cook's tour of Spain Many of us, who live (or have lived) in Spain frequently travel throughout the country, discovering a wealth of art, history and culture as well as exciting foods, cheeses, wines and sweets, some very local indeed. It is very similar to the cuisine of Castilla. This long history of invasion is still evident in Spain's cuisine. Spain is where chocolate was first mixed with sugar to remove its natural bitterness. Similarly to neighbouring Asturias, Galicia shares some culinary traditions[which?] Among the most outstanding dishes are: Murcia tortilla, zarangollo, mojete, eggplants cream, pipirrana, etc. , Although the new foodscape built in opposition to the French centralist culinary model accounted for the awareness of the distinctive regional singularities, subsequent food writers in the country would continue to cope with the tension between the Spanish peripheral and centralist foodscapes. Extremaduran ajoblanco (ajoblanco extremeño) is a cold soup different from Andalusian ajoblanco since it contains egg yolk in the emulsion and vegetables but no almonds. Balearic food is an example of the famous Mediterranean diet due to the importance of olive oil, legumes, unrefined cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish. Pork dishes are also very popular. The Spanish explorers brought back many novel foods, such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn, avocados, papayas, peppers, and cacao for chocolate. Spain’s geographical position has made our gastronomy, rich with the variety fo products our land offers. After arriving in Spain, one of the first innovations achieved by the Moors was the installation of irrigation systems which allowed the harvesting of arid areas, thereby expanding and improving vegetable plantations. Among these are: the Galician empanada, Galician octopus, scallops, crab, and barnacles. Among the recipes made with bread are migas de Pastor, migas con chocolate, regañaos (cakes with sardines or herring,) and goguera. ", "Carlos D. Cidón propone un ambicioso programa de cursos para profesionales de la cocina", "Fallece Carlos Domínguez Cidón, uno de los "pilares importantes" de la gastronomía de Castilla y León", "A Late Dinner: Discovering the Food of Spain. By 1248 only Granada remained under Muslim control, and it finally fell in 1492, year in which Columbus landed in the new found Indies. Among fish and seafood are the golden salt, the Mar Menor prawns and baked octopus. 1878 d. 1956), also known as "Marquesa de Parabere", the author of a two-volume cooking encyclopaedia entitled, Ángel Muro, a 19th-century food expert and author of the book, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 20:16. Asturian cider, made of a special type of apple, is traditionally poured ("escanciada") from a certain height, usually over the head of the waiter/server: one hand holds the glass, slightly tilted, under the hip, while the other hand throws the cider from atop, the arm usually stretched upwards. Spain’s geographical position has made our gastronomy, rich with the variety fo products our land offers. Due to the succession of cultures that have inhabited the Iberian Peninsula ( Spain), we have a huge variety regarding to: music, art, language and how could it be less, gastronomy.  This was however not a book exclusively of Spanish traditional recipes, but to a large extent it included French recipes, bringing an exotic penchant to the Spanish homes. Like a lot of dishes, the real history goes back way further than a couple hundred years. ", "Penelope Casas, pioneer of English-language Spanish cookbooks, dies.  Notably, during Christmas, nougat is made in Alicante and Jijona; also well-known are peladillas (almonds wrapped in a thick layer of caramel). , A continental-style breakfast (desayuno) may be taken just after waking up, or before entering the workplace. Introduction. This led to game meat being incorporated into traditional dishes, such as conejo al Ajillo (rabbit in garlic sauce), perdiz escabechada (marinated partridge) or huevos de codorniz (quail's eggs). In all honesty, it hardly affected the cuisine that was being served in the Spanish courts, who preferred to stick to the old cooking methods of the previous centuries. Pork products are also popular. Madrid, due to the influx of visitors from the nineteenth century onwards, was one of the first cities to introduce the concept of the restaurant, hosting some of the earliest examples. A culinary custom is the typical Andalusian breakfast, which is considered to be a traditional characteristic of laborers which is extending throughout Spain.  Among the desserts are leche frita, /*perrunillas, and pestiños (fritters), as well as many sweets that have their origins in convents. Asturian cheeses are very popular in the rest of Spain. Some classic dishes in the Canary Islands include papas arrugadas, almogrote, frangollo, rabbit in "salmorejo sauce", and stewed goat. In terms of cured meats, ham from Teruel and Huesca are used often. Fish (fresh or salted) and potatoes are among the most common staple foods in the islands. Learn about the history of Mexican food and how this kind of food has made its place in the world of fine cuisine. The culture of eating is very strong among the inhabitants of this region. Some important fruits and vegetables are Aranjuez strawberries and melons. The earliest known Human inhabitants of Cuba were the Taino people . [clarification needed] Highlights include meat and fish dishes. , By the 18th century, many American ingredients, such as peppers and tomatoes, had been already fully incorporated to the Spanish cuisine, bringing new strong flavours; contemporary foreign visitors such as French ambassador Jean-François de Bourgoing, judged negatively this gastronomic synthesis happening in Spain by the late part of the century: "Spanish cooking, which they have inherited, is not generally pleasing to foreigners. What influenced Spanish cuisine? To read about a country’s cuisine isn’t simply to go looking for ‘good things’; it is also to better know by means of the recipes – the customs and the richness or poverty of a place, and the spirit of those who inhabit it. One popular Valencia creation is paella, a rice dish cooked in a circular pan and topped with vegetables and meats (originally rabbit and chicken). Carving Out a Place for Spanish Food Studies", "Así consiguió Simone Ortega que sus '1080 recetas' se vendan tanto como el 'Quijote, "Libertad en los fogones. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spanish_cuisine&oldid=992917870, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020, Articles with self-published sources from December 2017, Pages using photo montage without center alignment, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with disputed statements from October 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2020, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, María Mestayer de Echagüe (Bilbao b. Rice was possibly introduced for the first time by Byzantines in the Iberian Peninsula by the 6th century, while, following the Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula in the 8th century, Moors would anyway much expand the rice crops, bringing new irrigation techniques originally from the Indian subcontinent that also allowed for the cultivation of crops such as sugar cane, watermelon, lemon and oranges. After the discovery of the new world, Spain occupied many areas of South America. Common products taken during breakfast include coffee, milk, chocolate drink, biscuits (most notably Marie biscuits), magdalenas, toasts (featuring ingredients such as oil, tomato and butter, bread toasts are a staple part of the desayuno either consumed back in home or in bars) or churros.. But the heart of Spanish cooking remains in its rustic, homespun nature, a legacy of a time when hard-pressed Spaniards had to work the land for everything it would offer. The Andalusian dish that has achieved the most international fame is gazpacho, from Hisp.Arabic *gazpáčo. The Cantabrian Sea provides a rich variety of species, including tuna, hake and sardine. From Celtic Galicia to the Culinary Crossroads of Madrid: A History of Spanish Cuisine Before Spain exported its culinary culture to the modern day world, conquerors, neighboring regions, geography, climate and local customs forged the foundation of cooking in Spain. Some authors, such as Strabo, wrote about aboriginal people of Spain using nuts and acorns as staple food. History of spanish cuisine origins Due to the succession of cultures that have inhabited the Iberian Peninsula (Spain), we have a huge variety regarding to: music, art, language and how could it be less, gastronomy. Gradually, they were integrated to our Spanish diet products such as potatoes, tomatoes, vanilla, pepper, oats, beans or chocolate. , Foreign visitors noted with disdain the Spaniards' use of olive oil and (pig's) lard for cooking rather than their preferred (cow's) butter. This region also has wine appellation of origin, as the wine from Jumilla, Bullas wine and wine Yecla. Two of its flag dishes are Trout Navarre Style and Ajoarriero, although we must not forget the lamb chilindrón or relleno. They were traditionally nomadic hunters and gatherers. Common meat dishes are beef steaks, pork loin with milk, fig leaf quail, and marinated goose. Another well-known dish is Rioja stew. Among the cheeses, tronchon is notable. Many of these continue to be basic ingredients in today’s Spanish cuisine and include most spices and produce such as saf… Cured pork cuisine includes botifarra (white and black) and the fuet of Vic. with the Celtic nations of Atlantic Europe. Or the renowned Spanish hams, which are cured in the mountains of the peninsula. Among the vegetable dishes, the most famous are calçots and the escalivada (roasted vegetables). The following is a list of traditional Spanish meals: Andalusian cuisine is twofold: rural and coastal. Some country-wide staple dishes common throughout Spain include the croquetas (croquettes), the paella (a rice dish incorporating different ingredients as it moves away from the area of origin in the Valencia region), the ensaladilla rusa (the local name for the Olivier salad), the gazpacho (a vegetable cold soup) and the tortilla de patatas (Spanish omelette). Some traditional recipes are gazpacho manchego, pisto manchego, and migas ruleras. For instance, Spanish cuisine routinely uses Arabic ingredients such as rice, sugar cane, eggplant, almonds, and lemon in their cooking. The world of Japanese cuisine has a long history, which is changing over the centuries. Spanish Food History: The Romans. Typical drinks in the area include anise, wine (such as Malaga, Jerez, and Pedro Ximénez), and sherry brandy. The nutritional value of the madrilian cuisine was discovered by the American epidemiologist Ancel Keys in the 1950, the Spanish cuisine being later often mentioned by epidemiologists as one of the best examples of the Mediterranean diet.. Other popular cheese types are gamonéu, afuega'l pitu, and ahumado de pría. Menus are organized according to these courses and include five or six choices in each course. Other meat dishes are lamb stew or goat stew (caldereta de cordero and caldereta de cabrito). The climate diversity makes Spanish food very rich in vegetables, meat and fish, but the variety of the Spanish cuisine is not only because of the weather, its location and history has led many different cultures to live together. At home, Spanish meals would contain one or two courses and a dessert. At merienda, people would typically drink coffee, eat something sweet, a sandwich or a piece of fruit. Dishes like 'ajo blanco', 'salmorejo',[further explanation needed]'gazpacho',[further explanation needed] 'alboronías', 'alajú', 'hallulla', 'albóndigas', 'mojama', 'arrope', fideuà, turrón are some of the many legacies of the Moorish cuisine. The queimadas (a folkloric preparation of orujo) consists of the mixing of the alcoholic beverage with peels of orange or lemon, sugar or coffee beans, prepared in a nearly ritual ceremony involving the flambé of the beverage. , The extremely influential cooking book 1080 recetas de cocina by Simone Ortega (first published in 1972) became a hit in Spain, remaining as of 2019 the third best-selling book ever in the history of the country after Don Quixote and the Bible. A sauce called mojo (of Portuguese origin) is very common through the islands. Notable sauces are romesco sauce, aioli, bouillabaisse of Catalan origin and picada. Veal is common in the mountainous areas. 2 history and food As a gateway between Europe and Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, Spain has been much fought over throughout history. There are very curious recipes such as the Carlists eggs.  Dishes such as arroz con costra, arròs negre, fideuá, arròs al forn, and rice with beans and turnips are also common in the city. It is a cold soup made with five vegetables, vinegar, water, salt, olive oil, and stale bread crumbs. The region is also known for its vino de pitarra tradition, home-made wine made in small earthenware vessels. A well-known recipe is beans with clams. Distinctive cheeses from the region include the so-called quesos de torta, sheep milk cheeses typically curdled with the infusion of thistle: both the torta of La Serena and the torta of El Casar enjoy a protected designation of origin. The hot soups include cat soup (made with bread), dog stew (fish soup with orange juice) and migas canas. Spaniards were the … In fact, tapas are so popular that they've been adapted into other cuisines, from cocktail parties to a spin on the classic dinner gathering. The Moorish Roots of Spanish Paella. Moors also developed the basis for the art of pastry-making and introduced escabeche, a food preservation technique relying on vinegar. Spanish cuisine is influenced by Spain’s location, surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Since the settlement of colonizations Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian until our times, the Spanish gastronomy has constantly evolved over the centuries. Dairy products include Cantabrian cream cheese, smoked cheeses, picón Bejes-Tresviso, and quesucos de Liébana. With literally thousands of recipes, the Spanish cuisine beneficiated since ancient times of a series of products and merchandising goods that were transported across the Mediterranean region.  Fish and seafood are also consumed on a regular basis. Lesser known dishes are Holy lunch and ajo huevo (garlic eggs).  Observing the kashrut regulations, Jews and judaizantes opted for blood-drained meat and without fat, outright rejecting bacon. Some well known food items are the sobrassada, arròs brut, mahón cheese, Gin de Menorca ("pelota"), and mayonnaise. In fact, Spanish foods are noted for their fresh natural flavors and a minimum of seasonings, and many an authentic Spanish dish perpared elsewhere fails simply because of the lack of quality and freshness in the basic ingredients. Due to the large time span between breakfast and lunch, it is not uncommon to halt the working schedule to take a mid-morning snack. The most famous dish is Rioja style potatoes and fritada. It is common for tapas to be provided as a complimentary appetizer in bars and cafes when ordering a drink. Notable desserts are frisuelos (similar to crêpes, usually filled with cream or apple jam), rice pudding (white rice cooked with milk, lemon zest and sugar), and carbayones (puff pastry cakes filled with almond mash and covered with sugar glaze). Cattle breeding is very common in Galicia, therefore, a lot of red meat is consumed, typically with potatoes. The Moorish influence , The seafood dishes are very famous and rich in variety. A Look at Moorish Influence on Spanish Cuisine - Global Foodways", https://www.spanish-food.org/recetas-cocina-espanola/historia-cocina-espanola-influencia-arabe.html, "En los márgenes de la ley: el consumo de alcohol en al Andalus", "La carne y el pescado en el sistema alimentario judío en la España medieval", Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, https://academiaaragonesadegastronomia.com/sites/default/files/archivos/2%20LA%20COCINA%20JUDIA.pdf, https://diariodegastronomia.com/gastronomia-sefardi-la-red-juderias-espana/, https://www.cervantes.es/imagenes/file/biblioteca/bibliografia_sefardi.pdf, "Eating Spain: National Cuisine Since 1900", "¿Por qué hace años los extranjeros odiaban la cocina española? The events of 1492 made it a key year for Spanish history, the reunification of Spain, and the “discovery” of America were the final factors that determine the appearance of the national cuisine. The Greeks settled its coastal areas as early as the eighth century B.C. Also notable is pork with turnip tops, a popular component of the Galician carnival meal laconadas. The Spanish cuisine – how it shaped up through history. It is consumed immediately after being served, in consecutive, tiny shots. Many ingredients that are used in today’s dishes were not yet used before the … Spanish food history may be among the most varied and interesting in the world.  Rioja wine has designated origin status. One particularly well-known Spanish custom is … Cantabrian pastries include sobaos and quesadas pasiegas. Cantabria has two wines labelled DOC: Costa de Cantabria and Liébana. 2), https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jbi6BwAAQBAJ&pg=PA341&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false, "Frommer's 500 places for food and wine lovers. The central part of Aragon, the flattest, is the richest in culinary specialties. It appears that the extension of the vines along the Mediterranean seems to be due to the colonization of the Greeks and the Phoenicians who introduced the cultivation of olive oil. , Modern Spanish cuisine was gestated in the late 19th to early 20th century, with gastronomes and writers such as Mariano Pardo de Figueroa (Dr. Thebussem), José Castro y Serrano [es], Ángel Muro [es], Emilia Pardo Bazán and Dionisio Pérez, some of which put an effort in developing the idea of a "national cuisine" recognisable by Spaniards as their own. It's traditional to prepare and eat small honey cakes (galletas de miel) for the feast of Corpus Christi. Spanish cuisine is such a wonderful variety of textures and flavours, the result of a long, colourful history. Fish dishes usually require a "green mojo" made from coriander or parsley, while roasted meats require a red variety made from chilli peppers that is commonly known as "mojo picón.". Aragonese cuisine has a rural and mountainous origin. Major wines in Castilian-Leonese cuisine include the robust wine of Toro, reds from Ribera del Duero, whites from Rueda, and clarets from Cigales. Among the cooked include the olla gitana, cocido murciano con pelotas, mondongo, etc. The cuisine of Valencia has two components: the rural (products of the field) and the other coastal, which is seafood. Cooks, work performed by slaves, began to be paid more. It is believed that authentic Mexican food might have been derived from the Mayan Indians. Being in a land where lambs are raised on the slopes of the Pyrenees, one of its most famous dishes is roast lamb (asado de ternasco). , In the view of Charles Perry, Spanish cuisine is "an existential sort of cuisine with a tough, dogged, living-on-the-edge character".. Spanish Food. Among the dishes are tumbet, frit mallorquí, and roasted suckling pig. La Rioja is recognized by the use of meats such as pork and their cold cuts, which are produced after the traditional slaughter. The World’s Greatest Ham. The closeness to Africa[dubious – discuss] influences climate and creates a range of warm temperatures that in modern times have fostered the agriculture of tropical and semitropical crops: bananas, yams, mangoes, avocados, and persimmons which are heavily used in Canarian cuisine. ", "Penelope Casas, Spanish food author, dies at 70. It was domesticated through a system called Nixtamalizati… Meat and fish pies show the Celtic heritage. Cod preparations are known, and tench is among the most traditional freshwater fish, with fish and vegetable dishes such as moje de peces or escarapuche. He brought tomatoes, chocolate, vanilla, beans and potatoes to Spain. Christians, made full use of the animal, did not stem from any other, parts of the pig that did not like the rich, feed the poor. One of the most abundant ingredients in Manchego cuisine is garlic, leading to dishes such as ajo arriero, ajo puerco, and garlic marinade.  A positive foreign take on the Spanish dishes opposing the largely negative views from foreign commentators was that of Richard Ford, fond of Spanish specialties such as Sherry and ham. After the Mexican War of Independence , these restrictions disappeared, and with the arrival of German immigrants in the 19th century, many breweries were opened in various parts of the country. Manchego cheese is also renowned. Soups are often bread based and include a variety of both hot and cold ones. The basics of Mexican cuisine can be traced back to 7000 BCE, when Mexico and Central America had yet to be colonized. Among the most famous dishes is the seafood changurro. The Celts were a warrior based community, and lived in small fortified round houses. Also popular are anchovies, bream, and bonito. A popular Cantabrian dish is cocido montañés (highlander stew), a rich stew made with beans, cabbage, and pork. The Canary Islands have a unique cuisine due to their geographical location in the Atlantic ocean. Cuban cuisine is a combination of Native American food of the Taino people, also African and other Afro-Caribbean, a lot of Spanish, some French influence and influence from Mexico & Central America. On 1942, Christopher Columbus’ expedition contributed greatly in the history of Spanish cuisine.  The use of garlic has been noted as "common to all Spanish cooking". Rice dishes are common and include Caldero, the Arroz empedrado, rice with rabbit and snails, rice scribe, and widower rice. Coastal towns supply the region with fish, leading to popular dishes like "all i pebre" typical of the Albufera, or fish stew. Spanish cuisine offers many treasures to locals and visitors alike, though few dishes can match the worldwide popularity of tapas. ", "The Early Modern Food Revolution: A Perspective from the Iberian Atlantic", "De la fonda nueva a la nueva cocina. The region of Murcia is famous for its varied fruit production. Among meat products from Murcia are black pudding, which is flavored with oregano, and pastel murciano made with ground beef.  One of its most famous dishes is the Asturian bean stew, known as "fabada." According to legend, paella comes from the clever way the Moors tackled their leftovers. Years later, with the formation of Christian kingdoms , Spaniards began to prepare dishes with pork, since for both Jews and Muslims this food was forbidden. The history of Mexican food is a long and diverse one. These historical nations introduced new cooking styles and ingredients in the Spanish cuisine, but the Spanish food is also influenced by other cultures. Other ingredients traveled to the Americas, such as rice, grapes, olives and many types of cereals. For One such case is fish, being a peninsula and therefore be almost completely surrounded by water, this food has been consumed by fishing from very ancient times. Firstly, being almost entirely surrounded by water ensures ample supply of fresh fish and seafood. The cuisine of the Basque Country has a wide and varied range of ingredients and preparations. ", "Cooking Up the Nation: Spanish Culinary Texts and Culinary Nationalization in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century. What many recognize as Mexican cuisine is the product of a storied fusion of cultures and flavors. The lamb is cooked with garlic, salt, and bacon fat. “Torrijas”. The Spanish cuisine gradually adopted a more international flavor, but the traditional regional Spanish cuisine never disappeared and was in fact introduced in the restaurants menus. Spanish food is known for its fresh ingredients, its distinct flavours, and the contrast between different regions thanks to its past. The Spanish brought European style beer but production was limited during the colonial period due to the lack of materials and taxes and restrictions placed on the product by Spanish authorities. Arab Moorish Influence on Agriculture in Al-Andalus. Highlights include game meats, such as wild boar, partridge, pheasant, or venison. Spanish cuisine has also been highly influenced by the many international destinations in which Spain once conquered. The growing of crops of the so-called tríada mediterránea [es] (the "Mediterranean triad": wheat, grapevines, and olives) underpinned the staple meal products for the inhabitants of the south of the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Era (bread, wine and oil). Some famous dishes include escudella, bread with tomato, bean omelette, coca de recapte, samfaina, thyme soup, and caragols a la llauna. The Romans introduced the custom of collecting and eating mushrooms, which is still preserved in many parts of Spain, especially in the north. Corn first entered their diet 500 years later in 1200 BCE. The Celts were known for fishing and farming as a means for living. Typical alcoholic drinks include claret and pacharán. The cuisine of Catalonia is based in a rural culture; it is very extensive and has great culinary wealth. The Phoenicians left their sauces, the Greeks introduced Spain to the wonders of olive oil, and Romans, Carthaginians, and Jews integrated elements of their own cooking into that of Spain. Among fish, cod (bacalao) is produced in various preparations: bacalao al pil pil, bacalao a la vizcaína, to name a few. They also introduced natural produce from Asia which was totally unknown to the Spanish. The country was formed by uniting different kingdoms and each one had their own traditions which have added variety to the cuisine. 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