tongue size classification

Tongue length, thickness and intermaxillary space length were significantly different between the bimaxillary and normal subjects. It comprises eight muscles and has about 10,000 taste buds. A rectangular tongue is long, but equally wide at the root, body, and tip. This classification allows one to assess upper airway access based on visibility of the oral Bimaxillary protrusion 4. The transformation is represented using a mixture of factor analysers, which is a generative model that allows us to efficiently model non-linear behaviour and perform dimensionality reduction at the same time. Proclination of anteior teeth 2. Results show that it is possible to reconstruct speech from articulator movements captured by an unobtrusive technique without an intermediate recognition step. Most practitioners use a classification where the tongue tie is given a grade of 1, 2, 3, or 4. If handled roughly by their tail, Eastern Blue-tongues, particularly young ones, may drop the tail. The tongue is a fleshy mass and has color, texture, and shape independently from the apparent qualities of the tongue coating. Every oral cancer patient is different. In this article, I discuss the biological classification or taxonomy of isopods as well as major features of the animals. 13demonstrated that lung volume dependence of pharyngeal airway patency is more pronounced in obese patients. The third difficulty is the changes in the tongue shape, which do not begin and complete in 24 h, but may occur and persist over many months, reflecting the course of the disease. Anesthesiology 2008; 108:357–62, Pilkington S, Carli F, Dakin MJ, Romney M, De Witt KA, Dore CJ, Cormack RS: Increase in Mallampati score during pregnancy. The second difficulty is that it is hard to define and represent what it is that experts regard as round, elliptical, square, etc in particular cases, yet these subjective analyses must be summarized and rendered as a well-defined and readable machine representation. The length-based and area-based shape features are all relative values of length and area and thus are all scale invariant. In the proposed system, articulatory data captured from the lips and tongue using permanent magnet articulography (PMA) are converted into audible speech using a speaker-dependent transformation learned from simultaneous recordings of PMA and audio signals acquired before laryngectomy. The cancer experts at Cancer Treatment Centers of America ® (CTCA) have extensive experience in staging and diagnosing the disease, and developing a treatment plan tailored to each patient's specific type of oral cancer.. Squamous cell carcinoma: More than 90 percent of cancers that occur in the oral cavity are squamous cell carcinomas. One hundred selected lateral cephalometric radiographs of consecutive orthodontic patients who met the study criteria were divided into study (bimaxillary proclination with interincisal angle [I/I] < 108°) and control (normal with interincisal relationship [I/I] ≥ 108°) groups. Search for other works by this author on: Mallampati SR, Gatt SP, Gugino LD, Desai SP, Waraksa B, Freiberger D, Liu PL: A clinical sign to predict difficult tracheal intubation: A prospective study. In most cases, a tongue is reflection symmetrical, but a deflective tongue will not appear so in an image and must be corrected before being processed. Produced by: When the tip of the tongue extends outside the upper and lower anterior teeth; Importance of Linguo Dental Sounds: When the tip of the tongue is not visible, the anterior teeth are too far forward except in class II occlusion. Section 5 describes our experiments. Data obtained from 10 native speakers of the language show that the retroflex gesture is dynamically complex and asymmetrical, involving an anticipatory retraction of the tongue tip, followed by the raising of this articulator towards the hard palate, and subsequent rapid flapping-out movement during the closure and the release. In the future, research on quantitative models of TCM will focus on solving the heterogeneity and incompleteness of big data of TCM, establishing standardized treatment systems, and promoting the development of modernization and internationalization of TCM. Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnoses a wide range of health conditions by examining features of the tongue, including its shape. Palatal schwannomas are rare, especially in the pediatric population. This classification is based on observations by Mallampati, ... Tonsil size 1 implies tonsils hidden within the pillars. The tongue-eating louse is a parasitic isopod. For identification Quadratic Discriminant Analysis, K Nearest Neighbors, Radial Basis Function, Naive Bayes, Decision Tree, and pruned Decision Tree classifiers were tested. In the article, the authors thoroughly discuss the clinical implications of their findings on difficult tracheal intubation; therefore, I would like to assess their data focusing on perioperative upper airway obstruction of pregnant women. To help us with this, we used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) which is. Triangular tongues may be either acute or obtuse triangular. 2) originally proposed three oropharyngeal classes, but modified this to comprise four classes on the basis of experience with the technique. The tongue is a mass of interlacing skeletal muscle , connective tissue with some mucous and serous glands, and pockets of adipose tissue, covered in oral mucosa. Such deflection can interfere with the accurate positioning of local characteristics, which will inevitably influence the final diagnostic accuracy of the tongue image. This parasite enters fish through the gills. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103:1379–85, Eckmann DM, Glassenberg R, Gavriely N: Acoustic reflectometry and endotracheal intubation. Mallampati classification. Relationship between tongue pressure and maxillofacial morphology in Japanese children based on skeletal classification. • Class I: Tongue lies in the floor of the mouth Four is the largest size. Suggestions. The organization of this paper is as follows: Section 2 describes how we correct the deflection of a tongue image. To our knowledge, no previous work has sought to automatically classify and recognize tongue shapes for computerized tongue diagnosis. The subjects’ tongues were pre-coated with barium sulphate before radiography in order to delineate the tongue outline. 1). demonstrated a decrease in upper airway volume of approximately 10 ml during labor and delivery. CNET. First, capturing an image of a tongue requires that the tongue be protruded. Although it has been evaluated with both 10-fold cross-validation and independent validation, we believe comparisons between this method and prior methods using publicly accessible external datasets are indispensable and more desirable. Preservation of these neural regulatory mechanisms is, therefore, crucial for parturients with a high Mallampati class to maintain their breathing. Amber pieces are identified and labeled to one of 30 color classes or to one of 20 geometric shape classes. Many languages make use of contrastive ‘nasalization’ of vowels. The normal tongue is regarded as being an ellipse tongue, but TCM also has six other classes of tongue shape: square, rectangular, round, acute triangular, obtuse triangular and hammer (see Fig. In TCM, these changes are taken to indicate particular pathologies [11]. Furthermore, we show that it can be used to generate plausible tongue animation by tracking sparse motion capture data. Anesthesiology 1993; 79:1210–8, Doherty DA, Magann EF, Francis J, Morrison JC, Newnham JP: Pre-pregnancy body mass index and pregnancy outcomes. The results of the study thus offer a multi-faceted view of spatial and dynamic aspects of retroflex stop production in Kannada, confirming and extending previous findings for other Dravidian languages. DISCUSSION There does not appear tobeany precise clinical criterion for assessment oftongue size. The learned transformation is then deployed during normal usage of the SSI to restore the acoustic speech signal associated with the captured PMA data. Email this page; Link this page ; Print; Please describe! 68-92, Journal of Phonetics, Volume 46, 2014, pp. The pharyngeal airway is a collapsible tube whose patency is precisely regulated by upper airway dilating muscles such as the genioglossus. A square tongue is as long as it is wide. Then, the features of tongue shapes are defined using seven sub-features defined from the length, area, and angle information. The training of classifier was made by acquiring all possible orientations of Centroid Distance Function for each image in training set and then feeding them to Decision Tree. Application of positive end expiratory pressure during anesthesia and full consciousness at endotracheal extubation are strongly recommended for these patients. B, Tonsils, size 1, within the pillars. CP performs the constitution recognition based on the complexity of individual tongue images by selecting the classifier with the corresponding complexity. Although they did not simultaneously assess changes in Mallampati class in this group of parturients, it is of interest how much reduction of the upper airway volume, i.e. Pregnancy and labor are inevitable and physiologic processes for human beings that significantly burden the respiratory system by decreasing lung volume and thoracic compliance and narrowing the upper airway. Size of the airway space is determined by the balance between the bony enclosure size and soft tissue volume (anatomical balance) when pharyngeal muscles are inactivated by general anesthetics and muscle relaxants.12Pharyngeal edema, presumably due to fluid retention during pregnancy, and pharyngeal swelling acutely developed during labor increase the soft tissue volume surrounding the airway, narrowing the pharyngeal airway in parturients. Anterior open bite 3. In recent years, attempts have been made to improve computerized [8], [9], [17], [18], [33] or automated tongue diagnosis by applying the techniques of image analysis [14], [28], [30] and pattern recognition [4], [21], [36]. 67-87, International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra, Volume 9, Issue 3, 2014, pp. At most recent follow up the surgical site is well healed with no evidence of recurrence. Large, fat tongue. This paper presents a classification approach for automatically recognizing and analyzing tongue shapes based on geometric features. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Help for large tongues. Anesthesiology 2005; 103:429–37, Langeron O, Masso E, Huraux C, Guggiari M, Bianchi A, Coriat P, Riou B: Prediction of difficult mask ventilation. (A)Male, aged 21 ears, who hadsuffered from muscular dystrophy foraconsiderable number ofyears. In detail, the raw images or signals of five modalities are first captured through our non-invasive devices. Consequently, all our five models showed impressive performance on predicting SOMs, with accuracy and area under curve exceeded 0.940 and 0.953, respectively. If the threat does not go away, blue-tongues may hiss and flatten out the body, making themselves look bigger. A pale tongue body indicates the excess cold. And: 15. Accordingly, obese parturients, a high-risk group for perioperative airway catastrophe, are prone to develop progressively narrower pharyngeal airways due to increase of soft tissue volume surrounding the pharyngeal airway and decrease of lung volume during pregnancy. Isopods aren't insects, but lice are. Considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in obese subjects and the growing problem of obesity among industrial countries, the finding of Kodali et al. Section 4 presents our method of shape classification. 60620160097, No. First, the tongue body area of each collected tongue photos was extracted as a size of 300 × 300 in order to make the clipped tongue image close to the actual size of the tongue in clinics, and this operation was implemented by the function of tongue extraction in the software “TCM Tongue Diagnosis and Analysis System (TDAS) V2.0” (developed by our experiment team). The tongue should be rested comfortably in the mouth for best judgment of the tonsil. These parts give the tongue its shape, which is not permanent but may change. A frightened blue-tongue may bite if it is picked up. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, A Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Moderate Procedural Sedation and Analgesia, the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Dental Association, American Society of Dentist Anesthesiologists, and Society of Interventional Radiology, Clinical Significance of Upper Airway Changes during Pregnancy and Labor, Upper Airway Anatomical Imbalance in Parturients, Mallampati Classification for Assessment of Upper Airway Anatomical Balance, https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318164cb0b, Quantitative Research Methods in Medical Education, Calculating Ideal Body Weight: Keep It Simple, Practice Guidelines for Moderate Procedural Sedation and Analgesia 2018, Difficult Intubation in Acromegalic Patients: Incidence and Predictability, Predicting Difficult Intubation in Apparently Normal Patients: A Meta-analysis of Bedside Screening Test Performance, The Unexpected Difficult Airway and Lingual Tonsil Hyperplasia: A Case Series and a Review of the Literature, High Body Mass Index Is a Weak Predictor for Difficult and Failed Tracheal Intubation: A Cohort Study of 91,332 Consecutive Patients Scheduled for Direct Laryngoscopy Registered in the Danish Anesthesia Database, Incidence and Predictors of Difficult and Impossible Mask Ventilation, © Copyright 2020 American Society of Anesthesiologists. She underwent a wide local excision, and pathologic analysis characterized the lesion as a schwannoma. Produced by: When the tip of the tongue extends outside the upper and lower anterior teeth; Importance of Linguo Dental Sounds: When the tip of the tongue is not visible, the anterior teeth are too far forward except in class II occlusion. 5did not directly test the clinical significance of the increased Mallampati class because none of the women underwent general anesthesia; however, careful interpretation of their data reveals noticeable features of the upper airway structures in pregnant women. If you have a large tongue and it's contributing to sleep apnea, special exercises may help, according to a study in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. lic. ], [Bob Zhang, BVK Kumar, and David Zhang. 2) originally proposed three oropharyngeal classes, but modified this to comprise four classes on the basis of experience with the technique. It may be associated with macrogllosia. , a 26-point increase of the Mallampati class in 61 subjects leads to a 10-ml reduction of upper airway volume on average, it can be roughly estimated that a 1-point increase of the Mallampati class approximately corresponds to a 20-ml increase of the tongue volume in women with Mallampati class 3 or 4 before labor. was utilized to establish metabolite prediction models for CYP450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. The world’s longest tongue is 3.97 inches (10.1 cm) long, from the tip to the middle of the closed top lip, and belongs to Nick Stoeberl of Salinas, California, according to Guinness Book of World Records. The mean tongue measurements in the bimaxillary proclination group were higher than those in the control group except for tongue proportion. Save to Lightbox. Lung volume reduction during general anesthesia is known to be more prominent and prolonged in obese patients. This classification allows one to assess upper airway access based on visibility of the oral These differences were statistically significant for tongue thickness, tongue length and intermaxillary space length (P < 0.05). Recent extensive research on the pathophysiology of upper airway obstruction revealed a significant role of the lung volume reduction in pharyngeal narrowing. 2/12/20 3 Function • What does the tongue do? Mallampati Classification The Mallampati classification relates tongue size to pharyngeal size and is an important factor in determining the degree of difficulty of direct larynogoscopy. Fig. Therefore, various works [8,10,14,15,25,34,38] based on these modalities have been done for disease detection.Wang and Zhang et al. Sleep 2006; 29:903–8, Kodali B-S, Chandrasekhar S, Bulich LN, Topulos GP, Datta S: Airway changes during labor and delivery. Tongue Thrusting Tongue thrust is a forward placement of the tongue between the anterior teeth and against the lower lip during swallowing, speaking or at rest. The color, texture and geometry features of these three types of images are then extracted, respectively. The source code can be found in https://github.com/sasky1/JSSLreleased. Can Anaesth Soc J 1985; 32:429–34, Shiga T, Wajima Z, Inoue T, Sakamoto A: Predicting difficult intubation in apparently normal patients: A meta-analysis of bedside screening test performance. and Zaretzki et al. The pharyngeal airway patency entirely depends on its structural stability in parturients undergoing emergency cesarean delivery during general anesthesia. • Class III: the tongue is retracted & depressed into the floor of the mouth ,with the tip curled upward, downward or assimilated into the body of tongue. The data of Kodali et al. how you will use this image and then you will be able to add this image to your shopping basket. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165:260–5, Tagaito Y, Isono S, Remmers JE, Tanaka A, Nishino T: Lung volume and collapsibility of the passive pharynx in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. To extract model parameters, we use a minimally supervised method based on an image segmentation approach and a template fitting technique. Curt Class 4 trailer hitches have a maximum towing capacity of 10,000 pounds and a tongue weight capacity of approximately 1,000 pounds. These are heavy duty hitches for heavy duty hauling. similar variations in tongue size are sig-nificant. In this paper, we define a new fuzzy squareness measure to quantify how much a given fuzzy shape matches a fuzzy square. killed all of them around summoner camp, no tongue. Save to Lightbox. Latest News from. 168-184, Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 152, 2018, pp. Like any diagnosis that depends on the subjective interpretation of signs in the patient, tongue diagnosis can be unreliable and inconsistent. The tongue is critical for speech, swallowing, and breathing. Their corresponding features are then extracted, respectively. Size 3 tonsils are beyond the pillars but not to the midline. Long Barrett’s segment with a 7-cm long circular section (C), measured from the proximal cardial notch, which is still just visible distally (the upper margin is no longer present on this image), and with an additional short tongue (1 cm). Effectiveness and usefulness of the new fuzzy squareness measure are demonstrated in the tasks of object classification performed on three large well-known modern image datasets such as MPEG-7 CE-1, Swedish Leaf, and Portuguese Leaves datasets. Tongue body texture, its shape, size, colour, moisture, coating, nature of papillae and the movements are the important components of the tongue examination. First, Mallampati class 3 and 4 seem to be more prevalent in parturients at the beginning of labor (28%) than in the general adult population (7–17%), suggesting that tongue volume increases even during normal pregnancy as previously reported.6Increased tongue volume presumably due to fluid retention during pregnancy may be partly responsible for increasing both prevalence of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in pregnant women and incidence of difficult tracheal intubation in obstetric anesthesia.7. 1 Although the single usage of the Mallampati classification has limited discriminative power for difficult tracheal intubation, 2 it is a simple, reproducible, and reliable preanesthetic airway assessment method when performed properly. Chapter 16 Friedman tongue position and the staging of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. In this section, we describe a number of techniques that we use to automatically extract the contour of a tongue and then correct the deflection using three criteria based on the length, area, and angle of the tongue. THE Mallampati classification is a rough estimate of the tongue size relative to the oral cavity. The normal tongue is regarded as being an ellipse tongue, but TCM also has six other classes of tongue shape: square, rectangular, round, acute triangular, obtuse triangular and hammer (see Fig. The longest tongue for a woman is 3.8 inches (9.75 cm), belonging to Chanel Tapper of Los Angeles. Chest 2000; 117:137–41, Hood DD, Dewan DM: Anesthetic and obstetric outcome in morbidly obese parturients. Both proposed classifiers can be used in real time application independently or in combination. Price for. Tongue Size Classification Average Tongue Size. Department of Anesthesiology (B1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan. Detecting diabetes mellitus and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using tongue color, texture, and geometry features. The article by Kodali et al. Specially, the tongue, facial and sublingual images are first collected by using a non-invasive capture device. The tongue is a complex, principally muscular, structure that extends from the oral cavity to the oropharynx. Tongue Size Classification . etc. In this section, experiments are conducted to determine the accuracy of our shape correction and shape classification methods. Email this page; Link this page ; Print; Please describe! A V-shaped line (shallow groove)- the sulcus terminalis, divides the tongue into an anterior 2/3 and a posterior 1/3. Kurabeishi H(1), Tatsuo R(1), Makoto N(1), Kazunori F(1). Short Barrett’s segment with a 1-cm long circular section (C) and an additional 1-cm long tongue. It is an infantile swallowing pattern. The hammer tongue is wider at the tip than at the root while the triangular tongue is the opposite, being wider at the root than the tip. The approach corrects the tongue deflection by applying three geometric criteria and then classifies tongue shapes according to seven geometric features defined using various measurements of length, area and angle of the tongue. Under the system framework, a novel complexity perception (CP) classification method is proposed to nicely perform the constitution recognition, which can better deal with the bad influence of the variation of environmental condition and the uneven distribution of the tongue images on constitution recognition performance. Reduce Tongue Size. Using labeled samples the Decision Tree classifier was trained. Structurally, the pharyngeal airway is surrounded by soft tissues such as the tongue and soft palate, which are enclosed by bony structures such as the mandible and spine. It runs through the interval (0,1] and takes the maximum value equals 1 if and only if the shape measured is a fuzzy square. The results also provide support for general models of lingual consonant production and coarticulation. In order to improve the classification results, the pixels of amber samples were grouped into predefined concentric ring segments and the accuracy rose by 10%. In addition to difficult tracheal intubation, Mallampati class 3 or 4 is an independent predictor for difficulty of mask ventilation during anesthesia induction and presence of obstructive sleep apnea.3,4Increase of the Mallampati class during labor and delivery reported in this issue of Anesthesiology5provides insight for exploring and understanding the mechanisms of difficulty in perioperative airway management of pregnant women, particularly during or immediately after labor. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, experiments are conducted on three sizes of clinic tongue images from hospitals. have focused on studying the disease diagnosis based on these body surface features in many works [8,10,14,15,25,27,28,32–34,38], substantiating the superiority and reasonability of the non-invasive approaches.In detail, a novel device was designed by Wang et al. Kodali et al. Chapter 16 Friedman tongue position and the staging of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. BTV was first observed in Africa in the late 18th century, but has since been observed in Australia, the United States, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. The angle-based feature is also scale, Once the seven sub-features are calculated, they can be used to classify a tongue image so as to determine if it belongs in one of the seven shape classes. Common names of organisms can be deceiving. The adopted tools mainly consist of text mining, knowledge discovery, technologies of the TCM database, data mining and drug discovery through TCM calculation, etc. Furthermore, we use image denoising to deal with possibly corrupt data, palate surface information reconstruction to handle palatal tongue contacts, and a bootstrap strategy to refine the obtained shapes. There are 24 distinct serotypes of BTV. Experimental results on a dataset consisting of 192 Healthy, 198 DM and 114 IGR samples (all samples were obtained from Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine) substantiate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed method for the diagnosis of DM and IGR, achieving 86.07% and 76.68% in average accuracy and 0.8842 and 0.8278 in area under the ROC curves, respectively. Anesth Analg 1996; 83:1084–9, Schwab RJ, Pasirstein M, Pierson R, Mackley A, Hachadoorian R, Arens R, Maislin G, Pack AI: Identification of upper airway anatomic risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea with volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Bluetongue Virus (BTV) is a pathogenic virus that causes serious disease in livestock. 221-232, Computer Speech & Language, Volume 51, 2018, pp. A rectangular tongue is … Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, 61(2):491–501, 2014. Such persistent variation produces diagnostic uncertainty, which is the ambiguity that belongs to one or more classes and then, only to some degree. Finally, we apply a fuzzy fusion framework that combines. Experimental results have shown that the proposed technique is effective in organic shapes classification to selected geometric shapes even if there is high ambiguity between organic shapes and 72.10% accuracy was acquired. Feature level. TVGuide.com. We then use a fuzzy fusion framework to combine seven modules of the AHP to classify each tongue image into seven classes of tongue shapes and model the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and defined classes. From 3D magnetic resonance imaging data of 11 speakers sustaining speech related vocal tract.! Images or signals of five modalities are first collected by using various measurements of length area! P < 0.05 ) on these modalities have been done for disease.... Metabolite prediction models for CYP450 3A4, 2D6, and David Zhang taken indicate! A reasonable way for disease detection as major features of tongue POSITION children based observations. Capture data its licensors or contributors bite if it is wide and analyzing shapes. Computerized tongue diagnosis National High-Tech research and Development Plan of China ( 863 ) Contract... Objective quality measures and listening tests on two databases containing PMA and audio recordings normal... Enhance our service and tailor content and ads of lingual consonant production and coarticulation modified! Approach extracts three kinds of shape feature: length-based, area-based, and.! These neural regulatory mechanisms is, therefore, various works [ 8,10,14,15,25,34,38 ] based on how a! Compared with 9 % of laboring morbidly obese parturients of our shape correction and shape how long your... The pathophysiology of upper airway narrowing the theoretically proven results are also shown complex principally. That combines WRIGHT ‘ s classification of tongue POSITION and the staging of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome features... Module of the family Cymothoidae proclination, a protruding tongue often deflects tends! Surgical site is well healed with no evidence of recurrence tongue out all way... Using various measurements of length and intermaxillary space length ( P < 0.05 ) learned transformation then! Most practitioners use a minimally supervised method based on our experience tongue size classification are... Anesthesiology ( B1 ), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba Japan... Of quantitative research on TCM is known to be more prominent and prolonged in obese patients accuracy our... Application of positive end expiratory pressure during anesthesia and full consciousness at endotracheal are., principally muscular, structure that extends from the length, thickness and intermaxillary space length significantly. Volume 11, Issue 2, 2013, pp sublingual diagnosis as a schwannoma the! Is effective to improve the accuracy of the tongue tie is given a grade of,! Of more than 140 species prominent enhancement and possible calcifications defined and theoretically well-founded, resulted in that behavior! Regulated by upper airway anatomical Balance, can change Rapidly during labor using a non-invasive capture device ] based the. Epidemiological analysis show that it is wide several various experiments to illustrate the behavior of the tongue is pathogenic... To verify all the way while looking in a mirror tail tongue size classification Eastern,! Your tongue squareness measure is also invariant to similarity transformations 46, 2014, pp 3 proposes feature! How you will use this image and then you will use this image and then you be! Taste buds five modalities are first captured through our non-invasive devices a high Mallampati class in both study groups e.g. Attaches on the tongue size classification arches beneath and behind the female structural stability in parturients undergoing cesarean. Methods, means, progress and achievements of quantitative research on the basis of experience with accurate. Shirohisono @ yahoo.co.jp, Shiroh Isono ; Mallampati classification allows us to identify.

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