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Out of 15 recognized varieties, seven of the varieties occur in Peninsular Malaysia; namely var. intermedia , var. Corner, F. deltoidea forma angustissima Corner, F. deltoidea var.  evaluated standardised extracts of different varieties of F. deltoidea for anti-inflammatory activity using three in vitro assays: lipoxygenase, hyaluronidase, and TPA-induced edema.  confirmed that F. deltoidea leaves do not contain toxic elements by evaluating toxicological elements (lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury) using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique, standardisation parameters (moisture, volatile, total ash, and acid insoluble ash), and Microbial Limit Test (MLT) for microbial contamination. It was found that flavan-3-ol monomers and proanthocyanidins contributed 85% of the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of F. deltoidea (Figure 3). deltoidea. bilobata , var . Oh MJ, Abdul Hamid M, Ngadiran S, Seo YK, Sarmidi MR, Park CS. The antioxidant property of the F. deltoidea extract was revealed through a total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay by Omar et al. B. Sule, “Antimicrobial activity of, N. A. M. Akhir, L. S. Chua, F. A. Recently, natural plant products have been gaining popularity in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Copyright © 2014 Hamidun Bunawan et al. VIII ABSTRACT This thesis reported the enzymatic extraction of Ficus deltoidea (mas cotek) for better enhancement of extracted yield. Antinociceptive activity of F. deltoidea aqueous extract from leaves was studied by Sulaiman et al. A study was conducted to assess whether the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of F. deltoidea leaves possessed antithrombotic activity and to observe the effect of the extracts on sperm quality and testosterone levels in diabetic rats . Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Previously, Hakiman and Maziah  described another experiment where different aqueous extracts of F. deltoidea accessions were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using several assays such as FRAP, free radical scavenging assay, total polyphenol, flavonoid, phenolic acid, and vitamin C. The potential of F. deltoidea whole-plant extract as an ulcer healing agent for gastric ulcers caused by ethanol in Sprague Dawley rats was investigated by Zahra et al. Ficus deltoidea has been reported to have beneficial pharmaceutical uses as an antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimelanogenic, antiphotoaging, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, and antibacterial agent. 2014; 2014: 902734. A study by Shafaei et al. Corner . Samsulrizal et al. Ficus deltoidea Jack is a shrub or small tree that belongs to the fig family (Moraceae). Significant antinociceptive effects of F. deltoidea leaves were observed in all three methods used when administered 30 minutes prior to pain induction. This plant is native to the Malayan Archipelago and has been introduced elsewhere. Additionally, F. deltoidea fruits are traditionally chewed to relieve toothache, cold, and headache and the entire Ficus deltoidea plant is also traditionally used as an aphrodisiac tonic and as health tonic by women in Indonesia. The authors declare no conflict of interests. The group that was treated with a placebo containing 5% and 10% of F. deltoidea extracts showed significantly accelerated wound healing in comparison with deionized water (negative control) and blank placebo treatments. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. deltoidea Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. Dried leaves don’t have any strong latex and safely to used. Deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated and characterized from F. deltoidea, particularly from the leaves and figs. arenaria Corner, F. deltoidea var. The negative control rats showed very severe gastric mucosal damage as well as edema and leucocyte permeation of the submucosal layer, suggesting that F. deltoidea extract protects against ulcers, demonstrated by the reduction in ulcer areas, inhibition of submucosal edema, and reduced leucocyte infiltration. Mokhtar MH, Hamid M. Antihyperglycemic activity of F. deltoidea ethanolic extract in normal rats. Currently, two bioactive constituents known as vitexin and isovitexin have been isolated, identified, and evaluated to show α-glucosidase inhibition . The scientific research on F. deltoidea indicated that this plant has received increasing interest in recent years. The study also found that the crude extracts and fractions of both varieties hindered yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases depending on dose used but failed to inhibit porcine pancreatic α-amylase. A. Azlan, and S. S. Fariza, “In-vitro antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of selected medicinal plant extracts from penang island Malaysia on metronidazole-resistanthelicobacter pylori and some pathogenic bacteria,”, P. Jamal, I. This review will unify fragmented information Malays in the Peninsular Malaysia have been using the powdered root and leaves of F. deltoidea to treat wounds, rheumatism, sores, and other ailments for centuries. Ficus deltoidea var. Pretreatment with F. deltoidea extract demonstrated considerably less gastric mucosal lesions produced by ulcerogens compared to the negative control. trengganuensis Corner . For many years there has been a tremendous interest in biological products gained from megadiversity countries like Malaysia. Recently, natural plant products have been gaining popularity in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Traditional medicines from plants have attracted major attention worldwide because of their potential pharmaceutical importance. Anti-inflammatory activity of standardised extracts of leaves of three varieties of, Sulaiman MR, Hussain MK, Zakaria ZA, et al. Identify it and choose 2 types of ficus. Ficus deltoidea not only has been used as a medicine for various ailments in the Malay Archipelago, but also has been distributed and formulated as capsules, tea, and tonic tea throughout Malaysia. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Recently, the fruits of two varieties of F. deltoidea, var. The plant extracts gave IC50 value of μg/mL and μg/mL in aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. . Even though the patients reported feeling energetic and fresh, effects on fasting blood sugar, HbA1C, and renal and lipid profiles were not significant. Other vernacular names include Sempit-Sempit and Agoluran for people in Sabah, Sarawak, and the Kalimantan Islands, Tabat Barito in Indonesia, and Kangkalibang in Africa. DLP-2013-024). It is distributed throughout the region known as Malesia, which includes Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia .  reported that the n-butanol fraction from the leaves of F. deltoidea showed visible α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects to control postprandial hyperglycemia. This plant is native to the Malayan Archipelago and has been introduced elsewhere. in Peninsular Malaysia is classified into seven varieties. The patients were given F. deltoidea 350 mg orally twice daily for two months. motleyana (Miq.) A. Mahmood, M. A. Hapipah, M. N. Suzita, and I. Salmah, “Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of, M. A. Abdulla, K. Abdul-Aziz Ahmed, F. M. Abu-Luhoom, and M. Muhanid, “Role of, A. M. Uyub, I. N. Nwachukwu, A. A comprehensive study on flavonoid compounds of aqueous extract of F. deltoidea was conducted by Omar et al. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. The patients were given F. deltoidea 350 mg orally twice daily for two months. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of a standardized ethanolic-water extract of Ficus deltoidea Angustifolia (FD-A) on blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In contrast, this figure was 15% for flavones, primarily due to apigenin-6,8-C-diglucoside. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. To have antimelanogenic effects in reducing melanogenesis biosynthesis for melanin production [ 22 ] findings related to COVID-19 high-quality. 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