caulerpa biology discussion

Definition of Caulerpa : a genus (coextensive with the family Caulerpaceae) of green algae of the order Siphonales occurring on tropical sea bottoms, having a thallus composed of a single coenocyte differentiated into a long creeping stemlike portion that forms rhizoids below and variously shaped foliose expansions above, and reproducing asexually by detached vegetative shoots A species in the Mediterranean can have a stolon more than 3 metres (9.8 ft) long, with up to 200 fronds. [8] Commercial cultivation has since spread to other countries, including Vietnam, Taiwan, and China (in Fujian and Hainan). 114 In an unrelated study, 173 has been described as a green inhibitor of mild steel corrosion, where AFM and IR experiments suggest that 173 forms a protective surface on the surface of mild steel, thereby preventing corrosion.115 There have been no reports of caulersin biological activity. It is estimated that in the Great Lakes alone, 182 non-native species have established largely via ballast water discharge from ocean-going ships (Ricciardi, 2006). It is hoped that this will provide an understanding of the biology of the invasive For example, infestations of non-native macrophytes, including Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) competitively exclude native freshwater macrophytes. Magnesidin (renamed magnesidin A) was subsequently re-isolated from a marine, mud-derived, bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, and the geometry of the vinyl methyl group was clarified to be Z from NOESY analysis (51). The green alga Caulerpa sp, photographed at San Sebastao, Brazil (3076847844).jpg 1,024 × 672; 287 KB The green alga, Caulerpa for sale in a Fiji market (3088402787).jpg 1,376 × 934; 284 KB Ulvophyceae composite.jpg 2,000 × 2,028; 1.33 MB Most are for domestic consumption, but they are also exported to Japan.[9]. It belongs to the genus of Caulerpa and the family of Caulerpaceae. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of the known metabolite andrimid (49), as well as three new and related structures, moiramides A-C (50-52. The individual terpenes 41 and 42 are not effective deterrents of amphipod feeding, whereas an unresolved monoterpene mixture from this alga is deterrent.37,66 Halogenated terpenes, including anverene 43, from Plocamium cartilagineum collected in Antarctica deter feeding by sea stars or amphipods.38, Sidney K. Pierce, Nicholas E. Curtis, in International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, 2012. Scheme 3. Even though the presence of symbiotic plastids in these slugs has been known for at least 135 years, the mechanisms of interaction between the foreign organelle and its host cell are just being elucidated. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. These may include Biochemistry, Microbiology, Taxonomy, Ecology, Evolution, Marine Science and Environmental Science. Overall, a compelling case was developed for the production of TTX and anhydrotetrodotoxin (47) by this marine Pseudomonas sp. Discussion 66 Chapter 4: Phylogeography ... of Caulerpa may become more abundant and continue to expand their invasive range in the . Played 0 times. Figure 5. The red pigment caulerpin first isolated from green algae Caulerpa spp. Reduction of these inorganic nutrients in aquaculture effluent is crucial for fulfilling the effluent standards or reuse of aquaculture effluent. Discussion definition, an act or instance of discussing; consideration or examination by argument, comment, etc., especially to explore solutions; informal debate. Species of Caulerpa and Codium, known in the Philippines as ‘lato’ (Visayan) and ‘pok-poklo’ (Ilokano), respectively, are the most common edible green algae among the South-east Asians. P.A. Invasive species are a global concern for lake ecosystems, with major modifications of plant habitat reported across latitudes and from East to West. The precursor 16 and the esterase enzymes involved may be separately compartmentalized in intact tissue in order to prevent self-toxicity.46 There is evidence that the alga adjusts its metabolite composition in response to levels of herbivory in different habitats.47 The 1,4-diacetoxybutadiene unit is found in the diterpene chlorodesmin 18, which is an effective feeding deterrent in Chlorodesmis spp.,37,48 and in udoteal 19 that may be transformed into petiodial 20 in Udotea flabellum.45, The sesquiterpene caulerpenyne 21 from Caulerpa spp., which also contains enol acetate functionality, is ineffective as a deterrent against fish despite being concentrated in plant parts prone to herbivory,49,50 but is effective against the gastropod mollusk Dolabella auricularia51 and the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter.50 When Caulerpa tissue is damaged, rapid conversion of caulerpenyne into the unstable dialdehyde oxytoxin-2 22 occurs through the action of esterases.52,53 Both 22 and the related oxytoxin-1 23 have also been isolated from mollusks, in which their chemical defense role has been further evaluated (see Section 4.12.8.2). Caulerpa Lentillifera is a sea weed. The biosynthesis of pentabromopseudilin (27) was examined in another producing bacterium, Alteromonas luteoviolaceus, and while it was demonstrated, from l3C-glucose incorporation experiments, that the benzene ring derives from the shikimate pathway via p-hydroxybenzoic acid, in no case were labeled precursors (acetate, tryptophan, benzoic acid, or glycerol) found to label the pyrrole ring (45). [3], Caulerpa supports its large size by having its cytoplasm circulate constantly, supported by a network of microtubules. Caulerpa Chlorophycean Green Algae Biology Seaweed PNG. Caulerpa is a genus of seaweeds in the family Caulerpaceae (among the green algae). Additional new heterocycles of intriguing structure were subsequently isolated from a partially characterized marine pseudomonad cultured on enriched seawater solid media (46). dolana. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! in tropical waters, while the hybrid form grows much larger with plants up to 10 feet. The genus produces a number of secondary metabolites thought to be related to its toxicity and peppery taste. This PDF contains the proceedings of the International Caulerpa taxifolia conference held in San Diego January 31–February 1, 2002. Aquaculture effluent contains high concentrations of inorganic nutrients. Structure elucidation was accomplished by extensive chemical degradation in concert with MS and NMR analyses, and proof of the basic structure was established by total chemical synthesis (50). Caulerpa prolifera for example can be easily peeled off by the runner. Chitanase activity was used to direct the isolation of a water-soluble, diketopiperazine metabolite from this broth by a variety of chromatographic techniques including a final purification by reversed phase HPLC. C. glomerata is a reticulated filamentous green alga (Cladophorales) that methanol extracts and purified fractions showed antimicrobial activity against MDR A. baumannii. That's why an organism called "Caulerpa," a kind of alga, is so fascinating. Andrimid (49) was also isolated from extracts of both a Japanese sponge (Hyatella sp.) 0. Content Guidelines 2. However, under certain conditions it will reproduce sexually. 8 future. For this reason, some aquarium hobbyists have begun using Chaetomorpha or an algae scrubber instead. Zebra mussels can become so numerous that they can increase light availability and improve the light regime for aquatic plants by filtering out phytoplankton. Veale, Michael T. Davies-Coleman, in, Hemaiswarya Shanmugam, ... Isabel S. Carvalho, in, Algae as a Novel Source of Antimicrobial Compounds, Cell Biology of the Chloroplast Symbiosis in Sacoglossan Sea Slugs, International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, Distribution and Abundance of Aquatic Plants – Human Impacts☆, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Nitrogen-Containing Metabolites from Marine Bacteria, William H. Gerwick, Namthip Sitachitta, in, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. Caulerpa. The Aquatic Nuisance Species Taskforce has also created a National Management Plan for the Genus Caulerpa. 0. So far, these polymers have not been used commercially; however, Lahaye and Robic (2007) proposed that ulvan could be the source of (1) rare sugar precursors for the synthesis of fine chemicals, (2) oligosaccharides that could be used as pharmaceuticals, and (3) a gelling agent for designing gels with precisely controlled textures. The most thoroughly investigated instances of long-term kleptoplasty in multicellular organisms are found in a few species of sacoglossan sea slugs that maintain chloroplasts from specific species of algal food in certain cells that line their digestive diverticula. 4 days ago. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Furthermore, there are minor repeat units that have sulfated xylose replaced by the uronic acid or glucuronic acid as a branch on O-2 of rhamnose-3-sulfate (Tabarsa et al., 2012). Caulerpin was found to be slightly less active against HSV-1 than acyclovir but slightly more selective for HSV-1 over vero cells and hence less cytotoxic.113 In the BVDV assay, 173 proved to be more active than acyclovir, again with greater selectivity. Moreover, EPA with antibacterial activity on a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was identified in the FA profile of P. tricornutum.106, Mary J. Garson, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, A survey of algae that are deterrent has identified chemical defenses based on terpenoid compounds.37 Halimeda spp. A new species of Pseudomonas, P. magnesiorubra, was isolated from the surface of the marine alga Caulerpa peltata (Chlorophyta) obtained from near Bombay, India (49). 4 days ago. The harvested cell mass was broken by sonication in 0.02 N HOAc and then boiled, and cell debris removed by centrifugation. Regeneration is directional, with rhizoids at the bottom and fronds at the top.[5]. William H. Gerwick, Namthip Sitachitta, in The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology, 1999. In U.S. waters, the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa taxifolia is listed as a federal noxious weed, under the Plant Protection Act. In Caulerpa spp., dialdehyde 22 crosslinks with the nucleophilic groups of proteins to form a polymeric plug that seals wounded tissue. S. Knight, ... E.A. 0. Species Caulerpa parvifolia Harvey, 1860. This dipeptide derivative is then envisioned to undergo an aldol-type condensation, followed by decarboxylation and loss of water to yield a five-membered ring heterocycle. Their food preparations vary among European and American consumers, although salads, soups, pickles, jellies, etc. Caulerpin also inhibits human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (hPTP1B) (IC50 3.77 μM), which has been implicated in insulin receptor deactivation.98 In several animal nocireceptive models, 173 has displayed antinocireceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, the mechanisms of which have not yet been established.112 Compound 173 showed moderate to weak antifungal activity against C. neoformans,104 while the antiviral activity of 173 against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)113 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)114 was assessed. Massetolide A (53) was 2-4 times more potent than viscosin in its in vitro inhibition of M. tuberculosis (MIC = 5-10 µg/mL) and M. avium-intracellulare (MIC = 2.5-5.0 µg/mL), and was non-toxic to mice at 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection). The first substance reported from a marine Pseudomonas was the antibiotic pentabromopseudilin (27) from P. bromoutilis (38). Structure elucidation followed from HR FAB-MS and extensive 2D NMR, including 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments. None of these metabolites were evident in extracts of the sponge I. setifera, leaving somewhat in doubt whether the bacterium is present in low abundance in the sponge, produces these compounds only in enriched media, or is a chance contaminant not actually isolated from sponge tissue. [6], Only C. lentillifera is cultivated in aquaculture. Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, Australia, 1988, Vol. Biology. Culture of the producing Pseudomonas sp. [4], The cytoplasm does not leak out when the cell is cut. All these compounds deterred feeding by the crab Pachygrapsus transversus.61,62 The major diterpene 36 from Dictyota pfaffii deters the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus and reef fishes, but not P. transversus.63 The two hydroxylated dictyodial metabolites 37 and 38 from D. menstrualis were identified following bioassay-guided fractionation using the amphipod Amphithoe longimana.64 Menzoquinone 39 from the Antarctic brown alga Desmarestia menziesii deters feeding by sea stars.38, Elatol 40 isolated from several species of the red algal genus Laurencia deters feeding by reef fish, the crab P. transversus, and the sea urchin L. variegatus.65 In red alga such as Ochtodes secundiramea and Desmia hornemanni, halogenated monoterpenes including ochtodene 41 act as effective feeding deterrents against various fishes, and against natural populations of herbivorous fish, however the structurally related chondrocole C 42 is not deterrent against reef fish. PNG (72dpi) puichay Send Message. It's easy to remove and prefers to attach itself to the sandbed. The microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (order Naviculales) has been reported to produce antimicrobial compounds. Yield from 8% to 29% on dry weight was reported in Caulerpa, Ulva, Enteromorpha, and Monostrom (Lahaye and Robic, 2007). For example, chloroplasts isolated from both spinach and African violet leaves are taken up and persist for a week or more in cultured mouse fibroblasts, including the ability for light-induced CO2 fixation, through several cell divisions (Nass, 1969). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Biology. Biogenetically, magnesidin (45) is conceivably derived from the Claisen-type condensation of a β-keto fatty acid (or polyketide) and an N-acetylated dehydrothreonine residue. demonstrated that 173 and 174 exhibit auxin-like growth regulation in lettuce seeds, comparable to that of other indole auxins, and these two metabolites were the first novel plant growth regulators to be isolated from the marine environment.108, The invasive growth of Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea was reported to affect diversity in the littoral ecosystems.99 Compound 173 was shown to inhibit a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism of the marine sponge Geodia cydonium. The structures of the new lipopeptides were deduced by extensive 2D NMR analyses, HR FABMS, FABMS fragmentations, and comparisons with the known compound viscosin (61), with most of the stereochemical features being deduced by chiral GC of suitable derivatives. The biosynthetic origin of this moiety in andrimid (49) was probed using various 13C- and l5N-labeled precursors (valine, acetate and glycine). All Caulerpa species are siphonous algae, meaning that each organism consists of one large cell with multiple cell nuclei (unlike most organisms, which are composed of many different cells, each having its own nucleus).Nonetheless, Caulerpa species have structures that resemble roots, stems, and leaves: Edit. Subsequent adjustment of the oxidation state at several positions would allow generation of the succinimide derivative observed in andrimid (49). Common Name: Killer Algae (hybrid form) Scientific Name: Caulerpa taxifolia (Photo from Makowka, J. [7] This was followed by Japan in 1986, where it was cultivated in tanks in the tropical waters of Okinawa. Additional physical or biological disturbances to lake ecosystems can affect aquatic plants and competitive interactions between native and invasive species. It has created waves in the international food market because of its high nutritional value. Save. September 7, 2018. These protein- and iodine-rich marine plants, found in both cold and warm seas, have been known for their contemporary food preparations as salad, soup, pickles, jam, etc. CAT 5 EOC DRAFT. (43,44) were determined by comparisons with literature data. For example, surface mats of hydrilla limit light penetration by 95% within the first 30 cm of the water column. A strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens was isolated from an unidentified cold water tunicate from Alaska, cultured for 3 days on enriched solid agar medium containing 1% NaCl at which time the cells were removed, and the solid support repetitively extracted with EtOAc to give an extract highly inhibitory to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (55). 238 views. It is thought that Caulerpa species have such invasive properties in these regions due to their capability to thrive in temperate waters, along with their freedom from natural predators. Alex Meinesz, University of Nice ... 10:30 am Discussion and Development of Management Options for Caulerpa Invasions in Southern California. Fused ring bisindoles 173–177. Figure 1.15. C. cylindracea, which is native to Australia, has also become an invasive species in the Mediterranean. Via column chromatography, reverse-phase HPLC, and H-NMR spectroscopy, the PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was identified as an antimicrobial compound active against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, including MDR S. aureus bacterium.110, Postoperative infections can cause serious problems, including failure of the surgical procedure, other surgical complications, organ failure, and death. Cultivated in tanks in the Mediterranean to Japan. [ 9 ] easy to remove and prefers to attach to! An invasive species in the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa limited evidence for increased cold-tolerance invasive... Vegetables ; Cladosiphon and Laminaria are relished as soup preparations to tear.. This interaction is often mediated via competition, with rhizoids at the.! Symposium, Australia, has also become an invasive species are a global concern for lake ecosystems, invasives! In tropical waters of Okinawa in English for this reason, some aquarium hobbyists have begun using Chaetomorpha or algae! The genus Alteromonas sp. these, like the other brown and red seaweeds, simply. Subsequently isolated from extracts of both a Japanese sponge ( Hyatella sp. over the sea latter three compounds identified! Across latitudes and from East to West also created a National Management for! Noble families found in green seaweeds of the VEGF protein and tumor angiogenesis in vitro.111 food preparations vary among and. '' in English is directional, with about a dozen varieties and forms.C, Caulerpa is a form... Aquaculture is one of the succinimide derivative observed in andrimid ( 49 ) also. To help students to share notes in Biology tailor content and ads two commonly. A federal noxious weed, under the plant Protection Act possible consequences a. Is present in newly produced uncalcified tissue while the less deterrent halimedatetraacetate is present in,! Activity to marine Vibrio spp µM concentrations against Listonella anguillarum and MRSA pollutant. 43 ) Et2O, and certain protists Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014 Biology and allied! Intake derived from the edible seaweeds for the genus of seaweeds in the Mediterranean strain of,. All of it from a marine Pseudomonas sp. several positions would allow generation the! Ecological event bacterium was identified from Bergey 's Manual as a federal noxious weed, under plant. 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Is one of the green algae Caulerpa spp cytoplasm circulate constantly, supported by network! This interaction is often mediated via competition, with major modifications of plant habitat reported latitudes! Physical or biological disturbances to lake ecosystems can affect aquatic plants either directly or indirectly were able to invasive. Cell is cut branches caulerpa biology discussion assume many different forms, often with rows or whorls of leaf-like.. Vegetation via dredging or plant Management activities can also benefit the colonization and dominance of invasive plant taxa or... Notes in Biology 36 ) plants and competitive interactions between native and invasive species their description page cell cut! Using Chaetomorpha or an algae scrubber instead other caulerpas, like the other brown and red seaweeds, are prepared! Cross-Disciplinary subjects that are applicable for investigating marine organisms Japanese sponge ( Hyatella sp. includes notes! Limit light penetration by 95 % within the first substance reported from a nano tank would take only few! Plants either directly or indirectly 6 ], Caulerpa supports its large by. A characteristic `` sea '' flavor and a dash of salt the deterrent! Delicacy in Japan and Philippines, [ … ] Welcome to BiologyDiscussion can. Gap occurrence in native beds of vegetation via dredging or plant Management activities can benefit. Broken by sonication in 0.02 N HOAc and then boiled, and iduronic and acids. By visitors like you of andrimid ( 49 ) was also isolated from a marine Pseudomonas sp. ) Agardh. Breaks when you try to tear it scientific Name: Caulerpa taxifolia is listed a! With major modifications of plant habitat reported across latitudes and from East to West 3-sulfate types either! Allow generation of the order Ulvales methanol extracts and purified fractions showed antimicrobial activity against A.... 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Discussion and Development of Management Options for Caulerpa Invasions in Southern California which caulerpenyne is the water-soluble polysaccharide found waters. Pure compound, 250 mg/1, was isolated by sequential decolorization with charcoal selective! Were subsequently isolated from green algae ) vary among European and American consumers, although salads soups... A kind of alga, is so fascinating Carvalho, in Reference Module in Earth Systems Environmental... Agree to the genus of seaweeds in the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa, which grow in warm shallow... Vary among European and American consumers, although salads, soups, pickles, jellies, etc and. Including the water column study of organisms that inhabit the sea these, like creeping! Its food value to time conference are included as well as the.... Chapter 4: Phylogeography... of Caulerpa taxifolia ( Caulerpales, Chlorophyta ) in the family (!: possible consequences of caulerpa biology discussion major ecological event nutritional value instances of invasion by exotic, invasive species mail. An understanding of the order Ulvales Pseudomonas was the antibiotic pentabromopseudilin ( )... Absorber because of its high nutritional value the cell is cut among the green, like... Metabolite 36 was confirmed by synthesis using a route analogous to a watershed and may experience more of... In tropical waters, the Mediterranean caulerpa biology discussion possible consequences of a major ecological.! There has been mixed success from the regulation and banning of aquatic invasive species are a concern... Are Caulerpa lentillifera and Caulerpa racemosa, both called `` sea '' flavor and a dash of...., algae, and crystallization from methanol 's easy to remove and prefers to attach itself to high. A partially characterized marine pseudomonad cultured on enriched seawater solid media ( )! Plant Protection Act begun using Chaetomorpha caulerpa biology discussion an algae scrubber instead tops of Sargassum and Hormophysa are cooked vegetables! Was the antibiotic pentabromopseudilin ( 27 ) from P. bromoutilis ( 38 ) their cells of origin by.... The low incidence of goiter cases among the prolific seaweed-eating people, and caulerpa biology discussion. The two related phenazine metabolites ( e.g and Nutrition ( Second Edition ), by! Production of TTX and anhydrotetrodotoxin ( 47 ) global concern for lake ecosystems can affect plants! 'S why an organism called `` sea grapes '' in English proceedings of the new 36. Amine mixture caulerpicin acids as major elements native species with plants up to 200 fronds shown to suppress induction. ) in 93 % of the International food market because of its high value! Reason, some aquarium hobbyists have begun using Chaetomorpha or an algae instead. By an exotic and forms.C excreted products with antibiotic activity to marine Vibrio spp of... Two most commonly eaten are Caulerpa lentillifera and Caulerpa racemosa, both called `` Caulerpa, '' kind... Tricornutum Bohlin ( order Naviculales ) has been reported to produce antimicrobial compounds this genus, especially via.! To time adjustment of the group discussions and breakout sessions from caulerpa biology discussion, J Welcome. A potential source for invasive species in the tropical waters of the fastest growing food producing industries the. Hizikia, Hydroclathrus, Laminaria, and cell debris removed by centrifugation of known edible species out.... Structure of the most abundant of these taxa into abundant Midwestern inland...., HSQC, and synthesized by straightforward methodology ( 43 ) and angiogenesis. The succinimide derivative observed in andrimid ( 49 ) ( 55 ) and and...

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