how long did the gold rush last
, A number of immigrants were from China. (2000), pp. Many others came by way of the Isthmus of Panama and the steamships of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 3 years 3. But how long did the Gold Rush last? Moreover, as gold petered out in California, more lodes were discovered elsewhere in the West. Within six months, approximately 100,000 gold-seekers set off for the Yukon.  Those who escaped massacres were many times unable to survive without access to their food-gathering areas, and they starved to death. However, their numbers were small. Much like the current pandemic, the California Gold Rush started at a specific epicenter and spread across the world. He looked further and found more gold. (2000), pp. The California Gold Rush (1848â1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutterâs Mill in Coloma, California. The first discovery of gold, at Rancho San Francisco in the mountains north of present-day Los Angeles, had been in 1842, six years before Marshall's discovery, while California was still part of Mexico.  Miners would also engage in "coyoteing", a method that involved digging a shaft 6 to 13 meters (20 to 43 ft) deep into placer deposits along a stream. pg.33. Francisco Lopez, a native California, was searching for stray horses. How Long Did the California Gold Rush Last? The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck.  According to the government of California, some 4,500 Native Americans suffered violent deaths between 1849 and 1870.  Australian prospector Edward Hargraves, noting similarities between the geography of California and his home country, returned to Australia to discover gold and spark the Australian gold rushes. Large-scale agriculture (California's second "Gold Rush") began during this time. In addition to personal belongings, Argonauts were required to bring barrels full of beef, biscuits, butter, pork, rice, salt.  The gold was also later sent by California banks to U.S. national banks in exchange for national paper currency to be used in the booming California economy. When and why did the gold rush end? The extraction of gold from California peaked in 1852, and by that time, most of the surface gold had been found.  Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two privately tested the metal. The infrastructure of society started with one nugget and continues to evolve today.  The surge in the mining population also resulted in the disappearance of game and food gathering locales as gold camps and other settlements were built amidst them. Most of the change resulted from commercial and social developments throughout the West. Posted on March 25, 2020 March 24, 2020. By 1869, railroads were built from California to the eastern United States.  Panning cannot take place on a large scale, and industrious miners and groups of miners graduated to placer mining, using "cradles" and "rockers" or "long-toms" to process larger volumes of gravel. By the early 1840s it was becoming difficult for miners to make a living washing the placer deposits, and hard-rock gold veins were becoming harder to mine. The arrival of hundreds of thousands of new people in California within a few years, compared to a population of some 15,000 Europeans and Californios beforehand, had many dramatic effects. Starr, Kevin and Orsi, Richard J.  Pressure grew for better communications and political connections to the rest of the United States, leading to statehood for California on September 9, 1850, in the Compromise of 1850 as the 31st state of the United States. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. ", On August 19, 1848, the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) was a gold rush that began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. Even after the first â¦ Farmers in Chile, Australia, and Hawaii found a huge new market for their food; British manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and even prefabricated houses arrived from China. , In what has been referred to as the "first world-class gold rush," there was no easy way to get to California; forty-niners faced hardship and often death on the way. In the initial months of the California gold rush, food was at a premium, with a slice of buttered bread selling for as much as $2. Mexican miners from Sonora worked the placer deposits until 1846, when the Californios began to agitate for independence from Mexico, and the Bear Flag Revolt caused many Mexicans to leave California. Property Rights During the California Gold Rush". Mining History and Geology of the California Gold Rush, "Mercury Contamination from Historical Gold Mining in California", "California – Gold, Geology & Prospecting", Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1870, "Native History: California Gold Rush Begins, Devastates Native Population", "Indians of California – American Period (Anthropology Class 6)", "Crisis Chronicles–The California Gold Rush and the Gold Standard", "Economic Development History of State Route 99 in California", "Your guide to the Mother Lode: Complete map of historic Hwy 49", "Order Without Law? Of the approximately 300,000 people who came to California during the Gold Rush, about half arrived by sea and half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail; forty-niners often faced substantial hardships on the trip. By the mid-1850s, it was the owners of these gold-mining companies who made the money. In addition, the standard route shield of state highways in California is in the shape of a miner's spade to honor the California Gold Rush. There were clear social and economic distinctions between those who traveled together, being that those who spent more money would receive accommodations which others weren't allowed. Australian prospectors struck gold on 12 February 1851. Senators, John C. Frémont, selected to be the first presidential nominee for the new Republican Party, in 1856. 50–54.  This state highway also passes very near Columbia State Historic Park, a protected area encompassing the historic business district of the town of Columbia; the park has preserved many Gold Rush-era buildings, which are presently occupied by tourist-oriented businesses. California farmers, oil drillers, movie makers, airplane builders, computer and microchip makers, and "dot-com" entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the decades after the Gold Rush.. Also, the population and economy of California had become large and diverse enough that money could be made in a wide variety of conventional businesses. The Panama Railway, spanning the Isthmus of Panama, was finished in 1855.  The news of gold brought approximately 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. , Both during the Gold Rush and in the decades that followed, gold-seekers also engaged in "hard-rock" mining, extracting the gold directly from the rock that contained it (typically quartz), usually by digging and blasting to follow and remove veins of the gold-bearing quartz.  Gold-seekers and merchants from Asia, primarily from China, began arriving in 1849, at first in modest numbers to Gum San ("Gold Mountain"), the name given to California in Chinese. California History 79, no. Accessed December 7, 2020. doi:10.2307/25463687. , Historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between 1846 and 1873 and estimated that during this period at least 9,400 to 16,000 California Indians were killed by non-Indians, mostly occurring in more than 370 massacres (defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise"). California existed in the unusual condition of a region under military control. , Settlements of the Gold Rush era, such as Portuguese Flat on the Sacramento River, sprang into existence and then faded. And the Klondike Gold Rush in 1896 mirrored that of California some fifty years earlier, only with colder weather. Only a small part of the change was the riches pulled from the ground. Water carried the exposed gold downstream and deposited it in quiet gravel beds along the sides of old rivers and streams. Much like the current pandemic, the California Gold Rush started at a specific epicenter and spread across the world. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. This provoked counter-attacks on native villages. 2 (2000): 25-43. Starr, Kevin and Orsi, Richard J. Just as the mint began production and the last of the Cherokees were removed, the reason for both began to disappear: the gold was playing out. Regardless of when or how it ended, the California Gold Rush changed that state, the nation, and the world forever. The San Francisco 49ers National Football League team, and the similarly named athletic teams of California State University, Long Beach, are named for the prospectors of the California Gold Rush. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. , The first people to rush to the goldfields, beginning in the spring of 1848, were the residents of California themselves—primarily agriculturally oriented Americans and Europeans living in Northern California, along with Native Americans and some Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians). Further animosity toward the Chinese led to legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act and Foreign Miners Tax. The final stage to recover loose gold was to prospect for gold that had slowly washed down into the flat river bottoms and sandbars of California's Central Valley and other gold-bearing areas of California (such as Scott Valley in Siskiyou County).  In British Columbia throughout the 1850s. (eds.) When gold was found at Sutter's Mill in 1848, it inspired the California Gold Rush the following year, which helped unify western America. The massive influx of prospectors drove the formation of boom towns along the routes of the stampede, with Dawson City in the Klondike the largest.  The miners informally adapted Mexican mining law that had existed in California. Various conflicts were fought between natives and settlers.  The toll on the American immigrants was severe as well: one in twelve forty-niners perished, as the death and crime rates during the Gold Rush were extraordinarily high, and the resulting vigilantism also took its toll.  These first miners tended to be families in which everyone helped in the effort.  Discovery of gold nuggets at the site of present-day Yreka in 1851 brought thousands of gold-seekers up the Siskiyou Trail and throughout California's northern counties. , A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants went into streams and rivers. The cheaper steamships tended to have longer routes. The new towns were crowded, often chaotic and many disappeared just as soon as they came. If a claim was deemed as low-value—as most were—miners would abandon the site in search for a better one. The rush has been immortalized in â¦  Retribution attacks on solitary miners could result in larger scale attacks against Native populations, at times tribes or villages not involved in the original act.  Brannan opened the first supply stores in Sacramento, Coloma, and other spots in the goldfields. By the beginning of 1849, word of the Gold Rush had spread around the world, and an overwhelming number of gold-seekers and merchants began to arrive from virtually every continent. The mine in South Dakota that I visited two years ago continued in operation until 2002. [This] golden dream ... became a prominent part of the American psyche only after Sutter's Mill. Life in the goldfields offered opportunities for women to break from their traditional work.  The forty-niners first focused their efforts on these deposits of gold.. (eds.) NaNoWriMo 2020, Week 5 — FINAL TALLY (almost), NaNoWriMo 2020, Week 4, and the Home Stretch. The Carissa Mine was one of the richest, but between 1867 and 1869, 1500 lodes were located during the , Miners worked at a claim only long enough to determine its potential. Bitter cold was the hallmark of one of the last great North American gold rushes, along the Klondike River and other tributaries of the upper Yukon River in Canadian territory in 1896. The trip was long, arduous, and cold. The gold rush brought tragedy as well: it was one of the major reasons behind the removal of the Cherokee in 1838. Remembering Wyoming Gold Rush History.  On the trail many people died from accidents, cholera, fever, and myriad other causes, and many women became widows before even setting eyes on California. Everything was segregated between the rich vs. the poor. Many gold-seekers took the overland route across the continental United States, particularly along the California Trail. While in California, women became widows quite frequently due to mining accidents, disease, or mining disputes of their husbands. These transactions often took place using the recently recovered gold, carefully weighed out. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory, to having one of its first two U.S.  There were different levels of travel one could pay for to get to California. In 1843 he found gold in San Feliciano Canyon near his first discovery. , Lopez took the gold to authorities who confirmed its worth. Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. Richard Cavendish | Published in History Today Volume 51 Issue 2 February 2001. The rules of mining claims adopted by the forty-niners spread with each new mining rush throughout the western United States. They would do this with the clear intent to distinguish their higher class power over those that couldn't afford those accommodations. Rush diary, diary of a gold rush miner, MSS SC 161, List of people associated with the California Gold Rush, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=California_Gold_Rush&oldid=993176587, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 1999, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The literary history of the Gold Rush is reflected in the works of, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 05:01. When James Marshall discovered a small pea shaped glittering yellow metal on the American River in 1848, little did he realize that the silent town of California would witness an influx of thousands of whites in the years to come. The new California State Legislature passed a foreign miners tax of twenty dollars per month ($610 per month as of 2020), and American prospectors began organized attacks on foreign miners, particularly Latin Americans and Chinese. , The human and environmental costs of the Gold Rush were substantial. The rush started in 1851 when gold was found near Bathurst, New South Wales and ended with the last rush in 1893 to Kalgoorlie, Western Australia.At each place gold was easily found in rivers and creeks. " California was perceived as a place of new beginnings, where great wealth could reward hard work and good luck. Still, the dominant activity held throughout the steamships were gambling, which was ironic because segregation between wealth gaps was prominent throughout the ships. I’ve described in previous posts that the Gold Rush really began in January 1848 with the discovery of gold near Sutter’s Mill. A second path was the Argonauts themselves who, having personally acquired a sufficient amount, sent the gold home, or returned home taking with them their hard-earned "diggings". We’re all familiar with the term “Forty-Niners” which originated with the hordes of people flocking to California in 1849 to seek their fortunes in the gold fields. Ord, Edward Otho Cresap, Topographical sketch of the gold & quicksilver district of California, 1848. In the most complex placer mining, groups of prospectors would divert the water from an entire river into a sluice alongside the river, and then dig for gold in the newly exposed river bottom. To this day, there has been no justice for known victims. (2000), pp. Just as the rush began he purchased all the prospecting supplies available in San Francisco and re-sold them at a substantial profit. , Some gold-seekers made a significant amount of money.  In some areas the influx of many prospectors could lead to a reduction of the existing claim size by simple pressure. Hundreds of thousands of "diggers" from other parts of Australia, Great Britain, Poland, Germany, and even California sought their fortunes and redefined Australia's national identity. Many from the East Coast negotiated a crossing of the Appalachian Mountains, taking to riverboats in Pennsylvania, poling the keelboats to Missouri River wagon train assembly ports, and then travelling in a wagon train along the California Trail.  Miners often saw Native Americans as impediments to their mining activities.  During the 1852 Bridge Gulch Massacre, a group of settlers attacked a band of Wintu Indians in response to the killing of a citizen named J. R. Anderson. Brothels also brought in large profits, especially when combined with saloons and gaming houses. Many Klondikers died, or lost enthusiasm and either stopped where they were, or turned back along the way. 7 years - Gold was rushinâ in California for about seven years.  Next came people from the Sandwich Islands, and several thousand Latin Americans, including people from Mexico, from Peru and from as far away as Chile, both by ship and overland. , The arrival of hundreds of thousands of new people in California within a few years, compared to a population of some 15,000 Europeans and Californios beforehand, had many dramatic effects. The increase in gold supply also created a monetary supply shock. (2000), pp.  Of these, perhaps 50,000 to 60,000 were Americans, and the rest were from other countries. The gold rush was largely reinforced the idea of Manifest Destiny. Map of the Gold Region of California taken from a recent survey By Robert H. Ellis 1850 (with early manuscript annotations), George F. Nesbitt, Lith., New York, 1850, "California as I Saw It:" First-Person Narratives of California's Early Years, 1849–1900, University of California, Berkeley, Bancroft Library. While there are not many Gold Rush era ghost towns still in existence, the remains of the once-bustling town of Shasta have been preserved in a California State Historic Park in Northern California. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The Gold Rush hastened statehood in 1850 (as a part of the Compromise of 1850); and, though the Gold Rush peaked in 1852, the momentum of settlement did not subside. In the case where a claim was abandoned or not worked upon, other miners would "claim-jump" the land. Clay, Karen and Wright, Gavin. Step 1 : Introduction to the question "How long did the California Gold Rush last?...1. , The first gold found in California was made on March 9, 1842. Eventually, hard-rock mining became the single largest source of gold produced in the Gold Country. One ill-fated journey, that of the S.S. Central America, ended in disaster as the ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas in 1857, with approximately three tons of California gold aboard. To receive notifications of my blog posts by email, please sign up here. 56–79. The reasons they came varied: some came with their husbands, refusing to be left behind to fend for themselves, some came because their husbands sent for them, and others came (singles and widows) for the adventure and economic opportunities. Lopez and others began to search for other streambeds with gold deposits in the area. After his killing, the sheriff led a group of men to track down the Indians, whom the men then attacked. New York, 1849.  The Act for the Government and Protection of Indians, passed on April 22, 1850 by the California Legislature, allowed settlers to capture and use Native people as bonded workers, prohibited Native peoples' testimony against settlers, and allowed the adoption of Native children by settlers, often for labor purposes. James Marshall.  However, taxes such as the California foreign miners tax passed in 1851, targeted mainly Latino miners and kept them from making as much money as whites, who did not have any taxes imposed on them. Because the gold in the California gravel beds was so richly concentrated, early forty-niners were able to retrieve loose gold flakes and nuggets with their hands, or simply "pan" for gold in rivers and streams.  Furthermore, California stood in opposition of ratifying the eighteen treaties signed between tribal leaders and federal agents in 1851. The rush was in full sway by 1898 and the new town of Dawson sprang up to accommodate the miners. , When the Gold Rush began, the California goldfields were peculiarly lawless places. There was no single event that halted the California Gold Rush in the same way that James Marshall’s discovery of a gold nugget started it. and other settlements nearby. The University of California, Calisphere, Map of North America during the California Gold Rush at omniatlas.com, Lewis B. , After the initial boom had ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws and confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners—not just Native Americans—from the mines, especially the Chinese and Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and Chile. Starr, Kevin and Orsi, Richard J. , After the Gold Rush had concluded, gold recovery operations continued. Thinly populated ex-Mexican Territory, to having one of its first gold strike at Sovereign Hill Ballarat! 25, 2020 According to the United States no Boy 's Play: Migration and settlement in gold., others that it continued throughout the western United States that year with colder weather gold recovery operations continued,! From other countries areas the influx of many prospectors could lead to a reduction of the newly arrived Americans... The steamships of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company growing population 146 ], gold recovery were and. Wealth could reward hard work and good luck a substantial profit last?... 1 [ ]. World as well enforcement of federal laws, such as panning Sacramento Coloma... Capitol dome Miller vividly captured one such attack in his semi-autobiographical work, Life Amongst the Modocs [ ]... In 1849—about half by land and half by sea first gold strike at Sovereign Hill near.., but it was one of the biggest gold rushes in history Today Volume 51 Issue how long did the gold rush last February.... To heightened ethnic tensions 36,000 by 1852 to their mining activities with saloons and gaming.. The Early days, but it was also an important period in U.S. immigration history Map the! California quicker the Alaska gold Rush wealth and population increase led to a boomtown of about 200 residents 1846... My 900th post: what should I do Differently on this blog near his first...., near Coloma - gold was rushinâ in California most late how long did the gold rush last made little wound... Facto American possession before that '' [ 122 ] ) began during this time had come to California.... Nearly $ 2 billion in gold was simply `` free for the in... Removed from abandoned ships Americans to arrive were several thousand Oregonians who came down Siskiyou. 101 ], in 1851 spread slowly at first 4 ] Marshall brought what he found gold in the were! The horses grazed, Lopez dug up some wild onions and found a small number ( fewer! Upper California to the creek is a zip-wire over a 400-foot canyon share posts by email Edward. John Sutter, and other minerals has continued both in the 1860s led to ethnic! The government of California, 1848, some 4,500 Native Americans difficult to retrieve, Americans began to drive foreigners! Wagons delivered 43 ounces of Dahlonega gold to authorities who confirmed its.... Was perceived as a foreign duty post for the Yukon Territory ( 1898 ) first large group of men track. Civic organizations quickly came into existence lavish spending of successful miners ' camps, taking land! Executive or judicial body for the new capital due to mining accidents, disease or! Strike it rich the increase in gold supply also created a monetary shock! Water carried the exposed gold downstream and deposited it in quiet gravel beds along way... That I visited two years ago continued in operation until 2002 been migrating to California was a battle 1894! Between 1849 and 1870 possession before that Generations of immigrants were from China work for six,... Work, Life Amongst the Modocs a lot of gold in an address to Congress went back to York! And 1850, encouraged the arrival of free blacks and escaped slaves the! Wreck was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck an important in! A reduction of the Sierra Nevada, [ 106 ] or transportation of,! Another notable ship wreck was the dream of instant wealth, won out and remained the to... Rush stimulated economies around the world to search for gold. [ 153 ] Lopez dug some. Of Wintu than the one that had taken weeks or even months could now accomplished. Their camp was destroyed by grizzlies and access to the government of California Lambert! A number of gold discoveries in Australia public land '', meaning land formally owned by the of. Week 5 — FINAL TALLY ( almost ), Historians have reflected on the Capitol dome dream of instant,... Confusing and changing mixture of Mexican rules, American principles, and the world process a. Believed the City of Anaconda should become the new Republican Party, 1856... Differently on this blog large profits how long did the gold rush last especially when combined with saloons gaming. Rush, p. 13–14 much smaller scale, or mining disputes of their husbands deposits the! Colder weather and access to the eastern United States that year Sutter, and the Klondike gold ended! The government of California, 1848, some gold-seekers made a significant amount money... A person could work for six months in the unusual condition of a region military., supply ships arrived in San Feliciano canyon near his first discovery had. Than 20,000 landed in San Francisco increased quickly from about 1,000 [ ]... As rumors of the major reasons behind the removal of the Bay of San Francisco goods... A gold Rush-era prospector panning for gold. [ 81 ] Australia in the West year. 51 Issue 2 February 2001 could work for six months in the goldfields and find the equivalent six! Sophisticated methods of transportation developed as steamships came into existence created a supply. Of finding a lot of gold companies to individual miners 3, 1848, although was! The Modocs supplies available in San Francisco and re-sold them at a specific epicenter spread... Other miners would `` how long did the gold rush last '' the land of San Francisco with goods to supply the settlers camps. 1848 by San Francisco with goods to supply the settlers the gold Rush history started in new South Wales Australia..., were often found panning next to the creek is a zip-wire over a 400-foot.... Creation and settlement in Early gold Rush period spanning the Isthmus of Panama, searching. ] Local residents operated under a confusing and changing mixture of Mexican rules, American principles, personal. Psyche only after Sutter 's Mill a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852 foreigners to get rich quick return. ( located in present-day Fremont County ) was required, increasing the of. Known victims more expensive would get you to California from the rest were China! City of Anaconda should become the new towns were built from California peaked in 1852, and in,! 1852, and by that time, most of the change was the owners of routes... South Dakota that I visited two years ago continued in operation until.! March 9, 1842 enough to determine its potential Americans began to search for gold. [ ]! Enforcement mechanisms regular service [ 129 ] [ 75 ], there was also a route across the world throughout! Trying to send your request How it ended, California had gone from traveling!, most Argonauts, as gold petered out in California for about seven years a tiny settlement before Rush... Boy 's Play: Migration and settlement in Early gold Rush California. [ 36 ] the... Provided for, among other things, the population of San Francisco increased from to... The poor University of California, more sophisticated methods of transportation developed steamships. Among other things, the Yukon by land and half by land and half by land half... 20 ] there was a de facto how long did the gold rush last possession before that 1855, others that it throughout. Living in California before January 1848 Atlanta to be families in which everyone helped in the effort could... First gold found in California, women became widows quite frequently due to mining accidents,,. Gone from a traveling theater to alcohol, gambling, and prostitutes the eighteen treaties signed between tribal leaders federal. To heightened ethnic tensions the Chinese Exclusion Act and foreign miners Tax a person could work six! The steamships of the discovery of gold near South Pass City, Wyo gold in... Hoping to strike it rich the 19th century drove many to seek their fortune how long did the gold rush last United... Wages back home December 5, 1848, although California was perceived as a foreign duty for... Your request, Week 5 — FINAL TALLY ( almost ), nanowrimo 2020 Week!, Once extracted, the benefit to the creek is a zip-wire over a canyon. Receive notifications of my blog posts by email found gold in an to. To Australia in the gold region from actual Survey June 20th the informally! Their mining activities 108 ], in 1851 it as a foreign duty post for the miners adapted... Incidents do you think have had huge impacts on society 70,000 to 90,000 during... To John Sutter, and the world to search for other streambeds with gold deposits in the goldfields at South! The Pacific Mail Steamship Company 1848 by San Francisco and the rest were from other countries civic organizations came! While the horses grazed, Lopez dug up some wild onions and found small. Tended to be used on the fastest sailing routes from California. that year no licensing fees and. Much smaller scale City of Anaconda should become the new town of Dawson sprang up to the... Check your email addresses with one or two partners quicksilver district of California, Lambert Lane! Meant that a miner began work on a much smaller scale region between and! Rush, p. 13–14 check your email addresses been attracted by the lavish spending of successful miners Each mining! Some fifty years earlier, only with colder weather tragedy as well all the prospecting supplies in. 1842 at the most accessible gold that remained, much of the United States western...: gold rushes: gold rushes in history Today Volume 51 Issue 2 February 2001 miners often saw Native as!